Aivoanatomiasta introspektioon. Kolme lukua psykoanalyysin esihistoriaa

From the anatomy of the brain to introspection. Three chapters in the prehistory of psychoanalysis

The article deals with the birth of psychoanalysis within the framework of three conceptual shifts, which date back to the late 1880s and the 1890s. The first shift moved Freud from the localising anatomo-clinical tradition towards more dynamic, physiologically-minded ways of conceptualising disease, a shift which is best illustrated in Freud's studies on aphasia. The most important social precondition for this shift was Freud's six-year-long stay in Ernst Brücke's physiological laboratory. The second shift was from the prevalence of somatic towards more clearly psychological explanatory models and problematics. Among the social incentives turning Freud in this direction were not only Freud's stay at the Salpêtrière, the foremost late 19th-century research centre for the study of neuroses, but also the specific demands of his private practice. The psychologisation of Freud's thinking was followed by yet another, even more decisive and certainly more unexpected turn: a shift of interest from pathological to normal conditions. This shift, with Freud's studies on dreams, memories and parapraxes as its immediate fruits, is often traced back to his self-analysis. Without denying the significance of self-analysis, the article throws light on two additional factors, viz. the normative conception of diseases prevalent in late 19th-century European medicine and the problematics of introspection, which was a highly topical issue in the German-speaking world of the time.

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