Kybernetiikan kehät. Itseohjaavuuden ajatus ja sosiaalisen alue

On Cybernetics

After World War II, a new communicative whole began to take shape as a result of an intertwining of several theoretical discourses, technological inventions, institutional organizations, and political ends and practices. Norbert Wiener laid perhaps the most important part of the theoretical foundation for a new communicative constellation. The theories formulated by Wiener, independently and with Claude E. Shannon, constituted a unifying conceptual terrain within which questions of control, whether as practices of business management or national discourses on political governance, could be posed in terms of communication. Now, the cybernetic technology of governance that established an immanent mechanism between communication and control seemed to be applicable, for the first time, to managerial problems in general, not only to those in some limited expert systems. Although society certainly did not change into an automatic machine based on formal rules, the extent of how the idea of this kind of machine shaped social thinking cannot be overestimated.

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