Friedrich Nietzschen "huono omatunto": genealogia

Friedrich Nietzsche's "Bad Conscience": A Genealogy

The article argues that Nietzsche's concept "bad conscience", just like his whole view of Christianity, derives from Lutheran theology in general and Martin Luther's writings in particular. In On the Genealogy of Morality, Nietzsche argues that Christianity is characterized by a will to bad conscience. However, the history of the concept of conscience reveals that neither in St Paul nor in the Scholastics one can find such a will. In fact, Paul purifies the concept of conscience (syneidesis) from the negative connotations that this concept had in Hellenistic literature - even from the connotations the authors of the classical period gave to the verbal root of the syneidesis, that is to say, to emauto synoida ("I know with myself"). For Paul, conscience ceases to be a mere punishing instance (comp. erinyes) or a judge (kategoros) and becomes an impartial witness (martyros). For the Scholastics, in turn, the conscience is that aspect of the Aristotelian practical reason (phronesis) issuing judgments about what specific action should be performed in a given situation in the light of acknowledged divine law. In both of these cases, the will to bad conscience is lacking. It is only in Luther that one can find such a will, which is why, in the end of the article, light is brought into some aspects of Nietzsche's Lutheran background.

Login Form